Pictographic writing systems are designed to "represent words, ideas, or groups of words or ideas by means of elements that visually portray their associated meanings for example a box for a house, or a stick figure for a human being " Id. Ideographic writing systems represent words, ideas or groups of same "by means of elements whose relationship to their meanings are less, or not at all obvious" Id.
Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC.
The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD.
Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: Iron Age writing[ edit ] Cippus PerusinusEtruscan writing near PerugiaItalythe precursor of the Latin alphabet The sculpture depicts a scene where three soothsayers are interpreting to King Suddhodana the dream of Queen Mayamother of Gautama Buddha.
Below them is seated a scribe recording the interpretation. This is possibly the earliest available pictorial record of the art of writing in India. From Nagarjunakonda2nd century CE.
The Phoenician alphabet is simply the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as it was continued into the Iron Age conventionally taken from a cut-off date of BC.
This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe.
For its part the Greek alphabet introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds. The Brahmic family of India is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well.
Several varieties of the Greek alphabet developed. The other variation, known as Eastern Greekwas used in present-day Turkey and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation. After first writing right to left, like the Phoenicians, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right.
Greek is in turn the source for all the modern scripts of Europe. The most widespread descendant of Greek is the Latin scriptnamed for the Latinsa central Italian people who came to dominate Europe with the rise of Rome. The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilizationwho used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks.
Due to the cultural dominance of the Roman state, the other Italic scripts have not survived in any great quantity, and the Etruscan language is mostly lost.
Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome. The primary literary languages were Greek and Persianthough other languages such as Syriac and Coptic were important too.
|History of writing - Wikipedia||It combined logographicsyllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1, distinct characters. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from Demotic.|
|History and evolution||In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded fromoriginally short for nominalised hieroglyphic s, with a plural hieroglyphicsfrom adjectival use hieroglyphic character.|
|Xipe Totec Figurine, Aztec, Mexico.|
|MESOAMERICAN WRITING SYSTEMS||The word hieroglyph has become a noun in English, standing for an individual hieroglyphic character.|
|Mesoamerican civilization The term Mesoamerica denotes the part of Mexico and Central America that was civilized in pre-Spanish times.|
The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region. Arabic and Persian quickly began to overshadow Greek's role as a language of scholarship.
Arabic script was adopted as the primary script of the Persian language and the Turkish language. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languagesLatinand other languages[ citation needed ].Egyptian hieroglyphic writing does not normally indicate vowels, unlike cuneiform, and for that reason has been labelled by some an abjad alphabet, i.e., an alphabet without vowels.
Thus, hieroglyphic writing representing a pintail duck is read in Egyptian as sꜣ, derived from the main consonants of the Egyptian word for this duck: 's. Pre-Columbian civilizations: Pre-Columbian civilizations, the aboriginal American Indian cultures that evolved in Mesoamerica (part of Mexico and Central America) and the Andean region (western South America) prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century.
The pre-Columbian civilizations were extraordinary. The structure of Zapotec writing was a kind of hieroglyphic writing in vertical columns and often with numerals (Marcus ). Zapotec writing was older than the Maya, Mixtec or Aztec systems and may have appeared as early as B.C.
in the Valley of Oaxaca (Id.).
LANGUAGES WORLD WIDE: LANGUAGES H-R (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). Egyptian hieroglyphic writing does not normally indicate vowels, unlike cuneiform, and for that reason has been labelled by some an abjad alphabet, i.e., an alphabet without vowels.
Thus, hieroglyphic writing representing a pintail duck is read in Egyptian as sꜣ, derived from the main consonants of the Egyptian word for this duck: ' s. As part of our Building Transformation, we are renovating and reimagining the Mexico & Central America regardbouddhiste.com new gallery will explore the stories of powerful ancient civilizations like the Maya, Aztec, and Zapotec through objects ranging from stone monuments to gold figurines.