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It was first published in a photographic edition in Robinson edited the first complete collection of English translations of the Nag Hammadi texts. Prior to the Nag Hammadi library discovery, the sayings of Jesus found in Oxyrhynchus were known simply as Logia Iesu.
This fact, along with the quite different wording Hippolytus uses when apparently quoting it see belowsuggests that the Gospel of Thomas "may have circulated in more than one form and passed through several stages of redaction.
Attestation[ edit ] The earliest surviving written references to the Gospel of Thomas are found in the writings of Hippolytus of Rome c. They transmit a tradition concerning this in the Gospel entitled "According to Thomas," which states expressly, "The one who seeks me will find me in children of seven years and older, for there, hidden in the fourteenth aeonI am revealed.
Origen listed the "Gospel according to Thomas" as being among the heterodox apocryphal gospels known to him Hom. In the 4th and 5th centuries, various Church Fathers wrote that the Gospel of Thomas was highly valued by Mani. Assigning a date to the Gospel of Thomas is very complex because it is difficult to know precisely Useful quotes for english essays what a date is being assigned.
Scholars have proposed a date as early as 40 AD or as late as AD, depending upon whether the Gospel of Thomas is identified with the original core of sayings, or with the author's published text, or with the Greek or Coptic texts, or with parallels in other literature.
Porter dates the Gospel of Thomas much later, to AD.
Most interpreters place its writing in the second century, understanding that many of its oral traditions are much older. Form of the gospel[ edit ] Theissen and Merz argue the genre of a collection of sayings was one of the earliest forms in which material about Jesus was handed down.
Davies argues that the apparent independence of the ordering of sayings in Thomas from that of their parallels in the synoptics shows that Thomas was not evidently reliant upon the canonical gospels and probably predated them.
Theissen and Merz give sayings 31 and 65 as examples of this. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
September Another argument for an early date is what some scholars have suggested is an interplay between the Gospel of John and the logia of Thomas. Parallels between the two have been taken to suggest that Thomas' logia preceded John's work, and that the latter was making a point-by-point riposte to Thomas, either in real or mock conflict.
This seeming dialectic has been pointed out by several New Testament scholars, notably Gregory J. Pagels, for example, says that John's gospel makes two references to the inability of the world to recognize the divine light.
With respect to the famous story of " Doubting Thomas ",  it is suggested  that John may have been denigrating or ridiculing a rival school of thought.
In another apparent contrast, John's text matter-of-factly presents a bodily resurrection as if this is a sine qua non of the faith; in contrast, Thomas' insights about the spirit-and-body are more nuanced.
Again, an apparently denigrating portrayal in the "Doubting Thomas" story may either be taken literally, or as a kind of mock "comeback" to Thomas' logia: After all, Thomas' thoughts about the spirit and body are really not so different from those which John has presented elsewhere.
Pagels interprets this as signifying one-upmanship by John, who is forcing Thomas to acknowledge Jesus' bodily nature. She writes that " Role of James[ edit ] Albert Hogeterp argues that the Gospel's saying 12, which attributes leadership of the community to James the Just rather than to Peteragrees with the description of the early Jerusalem church by Paul in Galatians 2: Moreover, there are some sayings, principally log.
Patterson argues that this can be interpreted as a criticism against the school of Christianity associated with the Gospel of Matthew, and that "[t]his sort of rivalry seems more at home in the first century than later", when all the apostles had become revered figures. Late camp[ edit ] The late camp dates Thomas some time after AD, generally in the mid-2nd century.
Porter dates Thomas much later, to the mid-third century. For example, saying 10 and 16 appear to contain a redacted harmonisation of Luke In this case it has been suggested that the dependence is best explained by the author of Thomas making use of an earlier harmonised oral tradition based on Matthew and Luke.
Evans also subscribes to this view and notes that "Over half of the New Testament writings are quoted, paralleled, or alluded to in Thomas According to this argument — which presupposes firstly the rectitude of the two-source hypothesis widely held among current New Testament scholars[ citation needed ]in which the author of Luke is seen as having used the pre-existing gospel according to Mark plus a lost Q document to compose his gospel — if the author of Thomas did, as Saying 5 suggests — refer to a pre-existing gospel according to Luke, rather than Mark's vocabulary, then the gospel of Thomas must have been composed after both Mark and Luke the latter of which is dated to between 60 AD and 90 AD.
Another saying that employs similar vocabulary to that used in Luke rather than Mark is Saying 31 in the original Greek Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1where Luke 4: The word dektos in all its cases and genders is clearly typical of Luke, since it is only employed by him in the canonical gospels Luke 4: Thus, the argument runs, the Greek Thomas has clearly been at least influenced by Luke's characteristic vocabulary.
Porter states that, because around half of the sayings in Thomas have parallels in the synoptic gospels, it is "possible that the sayings in the Gospel of Thomas were selected directly from the canonical gospels and were either reproduced more or less exactly or amended to fit the author's distinctive theological outlook.
Meier, scholars predominantly conclude that Thomas depends on or harmonizes the Synoptics. They contend that many sayings of the Gospel of Thomas are more similar to Syriac translations of the canonical gospels than their record in the original Greek.
Evans states that saying 54 in Thomas, which speaks of the poor and the kingdom of heaven, is more similar to the Syriac version of Matthew 5: He concludes that, "Thomas, rather than representing the earliest form, has been shaped by this harmonizing tendency in Syria.Home of modern English Shakespeare translations & Shakespeare facts and resources.
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