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In Venezuela and Central America the situation was the reverse. During the war the State Department endorsed all-American oil concessions, but, in accordance with the principle of reciprocity, Hughes instructed his Latin-American ambassadors in to respect foreign interests.
Latin America in general… The background Though the conditions of pre-Columbian America and 15th-century Iberia are beyond the scope of Latin American history proper, they must be given consideration in that connection.
Not only did the geography of precontact America persist, but both the new arrivals and the indigenous inhabitants long retained their respective general characteristics, and it was the fit between them that determined many aspects of Latin American evolution.
Not only is the term erroneous by origin, but it did not correspond to anything in the minds of the indigenous people. Any such word refers to commonalities seen from the outside and not to any unity perceived by the inhabitants of the Americas themselves.
The indigenous peoples were greatly varied, far more so than the Europeans; they were spread over a vast area and only faintly aware of each other from one major region to the next. Nonetheless, the indigenous peoples had several things in common. They were closely related to one another in biological terms, and their languages, though they cannot be shown to have a common origin, tend to share many general features.
All shared an isolation from the great mass of humanity inhabiting Eurasia and Africa, who were in some way in contact with one another.
The inhabitants of America all lacked immunities to diseases common in Europe and Africa. They had some impressive innovations to their credit, including the domesticated plants of Mesoamerica and the Andesbut all had been kept apart from things that had long since spread over much of the rest of the globe, including steel, firearms, horses, wheeled vehicles, long-distance shipping, and alphabetic writing.
As a result, the indigenous peoples, once in contact, were very vulnerable to the outsiders. Epidemics raged wherever intruders appeared; with their materials and techniques the Europeans were able to conquer whenever they felt it imperative to do so.
Types of Western Hemisphere societies The Europeans were sedentary, living in nations and districts with distinct borders, relying on a permanent intensive agriculture to sustain many people in a variety of pursuits who lived in both urban and rural communities. One large section of the indigenous American population, in fact the most numerous, based in Mesoamerica central and southern Mexico and Guatemala and the central Andes, was also sedentary.
Indeed, these peoples and the Europeans tended to have more in common with each other than either had with other peoples indigenous to the Americas. Another type of indigenous peoples may be called semisedentary. They lacked the permanent-site agriculture and the fixed borders of the sedentary peoples and were apparently far less numerous, but they had shifting agriculture and sizable, if frequently moving, settlements.
They were found above all in relatively temperate forested areas. The third category that can be established is that of the nonsedentary peoples, who had little or no agriculture and moved annually in small bands over a large territory, hunting and gathering.
They were located primarily in areas that under the then-existing technologies were not propitious for agriculture, especially plains and dense tropical forests. Sedentary peoples The sedentary peoples shared with the Europeans not only an agricultural base and dense, quite concentrated populations but also territorial states, hereditary rulers, state religions with priesthoods, specialized craft groups, social classes including a nobility distinct from commoners, and regularized taxes or tributes.
Among some sedentary groups, large political structures—confederations or empires—had come into existence, collecting tribute and engaging in trade over long distances. The most famous of these are the Inca empire in the Andean region and what is often called the Aztec empire in Mexico although the word Aztec was little known at the time.
These empires were not nations but had at their centre one small ethnic state or a few that exercised dominance over a large number of similar states.
The subject states retained their ethnic identity, their own rulerships, and their general way of life despite owing tribute to the imperial power. It was these subject entities that were to survive the conquest and serve as the base of the European presence.
They had different names in different places, and indeed their structures varied, but they were everywhere enough like European small principalities, counties, or provinces to be able to function within a European framework. Among the sedentary indigenous peoples, as in the Iberian system, the household held and worked land and paid taxes.
In both, women were in some ways subordinate to men. But in both cultures they could hold and bequeath personal and real property and carry out various kinds of economic transactions, retaining many rights within marriage. In the matter of marriage alliances, crucial to the organization of both kinds of societies, the woman and her property and rank were as important as the man and his.
Semisedentary peoples Among the semisedentary peoples, much of the above structure was missing. Without well-defined permanent local political units, strong rulers, or tax mechanisms, they did not offer the Europeans the same kind of potential foothold.
They lacked social classes, depending on gender and age for their primary social distinctions. Even their household and family structures were different. Settlements or villages shifted over time both in location and in membership; the largest strongly defined unit was a household often containing scores of people related by blood and marriage, headed by the eldest male, and the best-defined duties in the society were internal to the household.
Among the sedentary peoples, men did most of the heavier agricultural work, with help only at times of peak workload from women, who were principally involved in processing and distributing the product, much as in Europe.
Among the semisedentary peoples, men mainly hunted, only clearing the fields for the women, who did the bulk of the agricultural work. Warfare was highly developed among both the sedentary and the semisedentary peoples, but the semisedentary were more mobile, were better able to protect themselves in forests and other hazardous environmentsand had more effective weapons.
Their foods were less attractive to Europeans, and in any case they had less surplus and were fewer in number.Online Subscription. Unlock this article, and thousands more from our complete 55+ year archive, by subscribing at the low introductory rate of just $1 an issue – that’s 10 issues online plus six months of full archive access for just $ (Set) Other Ferdinand, Isabella, and the Making of an Empire & Conquest of the Americas Reviews Conquest of the Americas is rated out of 5 by Commander: Conquest of the Americas Combining elements from both trading and strategy games, Commander: Conquest of the Americas will appeal to a wide range of players.
Players take charge of one of the many European powers aiming to conquer the New World.6/10(). Commander: Conquest of the Americas Combining elements from both trading and strategy games, Commander: Conquest of the Americas will appeal to a wide range of players.
Players take charge of one of the many European powers aiming to conquer the New World.6/10(). Regardless, the moment he stepped onto dry land marked the beginning of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.
During his first voyage, Columbus traveled to Cuba as well as Hispaniola, the home of present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In the conquest of Mexico, one of the leading factors that led to the success of the Spanish conquest was the experienced Spanish leader, Hernan Cortés.
Luckily for the Spanish, Cortés had previous experience with making indigenous allies for fifteen years in Central and South America and Panama.