Today when Americans think of communism, it brings back memories of a dark time.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk whereby Russia yielded large portions of its territory to Germany caused a breach between the Bolsheviks Communists and the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, who thereupon left the coalition.
In the next months there was a marked drawing together of two main groups of Russian opponents of Lenin: This army, which had survived great hardships in the winter of —18 and which came under the command of Gen. Denikin Aprilwas now a fine fighting force, though small in numbers.
Brest-Litovsk, treaties ofDelegates at negotiations for the treaties of Brest-Litovsk, In March a small British force was landed at Murmansk with the consent of the local soviet.
On April 5 Japanese forces landed at Vladivostokwithout any approval. A further factor was the Czechoslovak Legioncomposed of Czech and Slovak deserters from the Austro-Hungarian army, whom previous Russian governments had allowed to form their own units. In March the Bolshevik government agreed to let these units leave Russia by the Far East, but in May violent incidents took place during the evacuation, and on May 29 Leon Trotskycommissar for war, ordered them to surrender their arms.
They refused, defeated attempts of the local soviets to disarm them, and took control of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. In the vacuum created by this action, two anti-Bolshevik authorities appeared: These events caused the Moscow government to crack down heavily on non-Bolshevik socialists.
The Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary deputies were expelled from the central and local soviets and prevented from engaging in any organized political activity.
Assassination of the tsar and the battle for Ukraine Among the early victims of the civil war, which may be considered to have begun in earnest in Junewere the former imperial family. Tsar Nicholas IIhis wifeand his children had been moved in August to Tobolsk and in the spring of to Yekaterinburg.
With the development of anti-Bolshevik forces in Siberiathe local soviet feared that Nicholas might be liberated. In the night of July 16—17,all the members of the family were taken to the cellar of their prison house and shot.
Nicholas II after being taken captive, c. Library of Congress, Washington, D. At Omsk, which became the centre of the anti-Communists, a new army was hastily trained under the command of Adm. Kolchakwith the assistance of British and U.
Meanwhile the British forces at Murmansk were at war with the Communists. In August further British forces landed at Arkhangelskand the Japanese forces in the Far Eastern territories of Russia had been greatly reinforced. In Omsk relations between the Socialist Revolutionaries and Kolchak steadily deteriorated.
The conflict came to a head when, on November 18,Kolchak set up his own dictatorship. At the beginning of Red Army forces invaded Ukraine. The remnants of the forces of the Socialist Revolutionaries, headed by Symon Petlyuraretreated westward, where they joined forces with Ukrainian nationalist forces from formerly Austrian Galicia.
The defeat of Germany had also opened the Black Sea to the Alliesand in mid-December some mixed forces under French command were landed at Odessa and Sevastopoland in the next months at Kherson and Nikolayev.
Foreign intervention The Allied governments now had to decide on their policy in the confused Russian situation. The original purpose of intervention, to revive an eastern front against Germany, was now meaningless.
Russian exiles argued that, since the pre-Bolshevik governments of Russia had remained loyal to the Allies, the Allies were bound to help them. To this moral argument was added the political argument that the Communist regime in Moscow was a menace to the whole of Europewith its subversive propaganda and its determination to spread revolution.
At the beginning of the French and Italian governments favoured strong support in the form of munitions and supplies rather than in men to the Whites as the anti-Communist forces now came to be calledwhile the British and U.
In January the Allies, on U. The Communists accepted, but the Whites refused. In March the U. Bullitt went to Moscow and returned with peace proposals from the Communists, which were not accepted by the Allies.
After this the Allies ceased trying to come to terms with the Communists and gave increased assistance to Kolchak and Denikin.Major Sources of Discord between the Bolsheviks and European States: to There were several major sources that created discord between the Bolsheviks and western states in .
One final difference between the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks was simply how ferocious and tenacious the party was willing to be in order to achieve its goals.
Lenin was open minded to retreating on political ideas if he saw the guarantee of long term gains benefiting the party. A Brief Sketch of the History of Alliance and Conflict Between the Church and the State. Civil Government in the Name of Christ That same year the Bolsheviks seized the Battleship Aurora on November 7, and the Anti-Christ, Vladimir Illyich Lenin, was enthroned as god in St.
Petersburg. The end of the War Between the States brought. Russian Civil War, (–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I.
Lenin against various . Aug 23, · As I was explaining in great detail in my essay “The Energy War Between U.S.A. and Russia”, there is a great fight in the Middle East between the Shiites regimes of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, and the Sunni regimes of Qatar, Saudi Arabia, U.A.E.
and Turkey. The Bolsheviks saw the war as a struggle between their workers and Russia’s upper and middle classes, and as a war of socialism against international capitalism. Meanwhile, World War 1 had ended, and the European states engaged in foreign intervention suddenly found their key motivation had evaporated.
France and Italy urged a major.