For thousands of years humans believed that authority came from the gods.
Norway, This story is based on a talk given by Dr. It was presented at a meeting in Elsinore, Denmark, MayThe meeting was organized to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Dr. I was fortunate to be able to attend that meeting.
I thought you would find the presentation as fascinating as did the rest of us there. It will give you a wonderful insight into the man whose discovery paved the way for early diagnosis and treatment of PKU. The Biochemical essay, along with other talks at the symposium, were just published in a special supplement to the journal Acta Pediatrica and I print the story with permission from the publisher.
I have made a few minor editorial changes, simplifying some technical aspects and shortening it slightly.
This story is a small chapter in the history of medicine. It tells about the discovery of phenylketonuria PKUwhich has a more general importance than merely benefit to PKU patients. The Discovery The stage is set in A mother with two severely mentally retarded children came to see my father, and to ask for his advice.
As usual in such cases she had asked many doctors for help, which none had been able to give. But this woman was unusually persistent and would not accept the situation without explanation. She had also noticed that a peculiar smell always clung to her children.
Why did she choose my father as a source of advice? Today doctors usually have some knowledge of chemistry and biochemistry, whereas at that time this was more unusual. He was first trained as a chemist and later studied medicine. He held a professorship of nutrient research at the University Hospital in Norway.
There was no laboratory of clinical chemistry in the hospital and so he worked in the attic of the medical ward. At that time there was an increasing awareness of the potential power of biochemistry in the field of medicine. Many doctors too optimistically believed that almost every problem could be solved by skilled biochemists.
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This woman was advised to seek help from my father. He of course had no real hope of being able to help her.
But he did not want to reject her, and he agreed to examine the children. On clinical examination he found nothing of importance, except the feeblemindedness, which was beyond doubt. At times she had an enormous appetite, at other times none.
The boy, almost 4 years old, could not speak or walk, eat or drink on his own. He was unable to fix his eyes on anything, and stool and urine habits were those of a baby. Urine examination showed no protein or glucose. He then added some ferric chloride to the urines.
Ferric chloride was used to detect ketones in the urine of diabetics. Therefore this was part of his thorough routine examination.
On adding ferric chloride the color normally stays brownish, and when ketones are present it turns purple or burgundy. Instead a deep green color developed in the urines.
He had not seen this reaction before and to his knowledge it had not been described in the literature. This first important observation prompted the question:Consistently named one of the top Universities in TN and the South, CBU is your home.
CBU is a student body full of diverse cultures, faiths and interests. Published: Mon, 5 Dec For my reflective account of my caring skill of assisting somebody to eat I am going to use “A model of reflective practice” Gibbs, G. (). Cell, Molecular & Developmental Biology - M.S., Ph.D Students have the opportunity to participate in research in a variety of areas of basic, applied, agricultural, and biomedical sciences.
A detailed and testable scenario for the evolutionary origin of the bacterial flagellum. When we become obsessed with finding the right answer, at the risk of oversimplifying the richly iterative and evolutionary nature of clinical reasoning, the .
Read the essay that got a high-school senior into 7 Ivy League schools.